Nostoc

Generic name: NOSTOC Vaucher ex Bornet et Flahault, 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 181.
Synonyms: AMORPHONOSTOC Elenkin, 1936. Priroda 20(10): 969-970., ECHEVERRIOPSIS Kufferath, 1929. Ann. crypt. exot. 2: 49., HORMOSIPHON Kützing, 1843. Phycol. gener., p. 209. , LINCKIA Wiggers, 1780. Prim. Fl. Holsat. 94., LINCKIA [“Mich.”] Roth, 1802. Neue Beitr. Bot. 1: 297., MONORMIA Berkeley, 1832. Glean. Brit. Alg., p. 46., NEMATONOSTOC Nylander ex Elenkin, 1934. Priroda 20(10): 969-970., NOSTOCHIUM Link in Nees, 1820. Hor. Phys. Berol, p. 6., POLYCOCCUS
Kützing, 1841. Naturk. Verh. Holl. Maatch. Wetensch. Haarlem, Taf. Q., SPHAERONOSTOC Elenkin, 1936. Priroda 20(10): 969-970., STRATONOSTOC Elenkin, 1936. Priroda 20(10): 969-970., UNDINA Fries, 1825. Syst. orb. veg. I, Pl. Homon., p. 348. [NOSTOC Vaucher, Histoire des Conferves d'eau douce, p. 203, 1803 ex Bornet et Flahault, 1886: Linckia, Ulva, Tremella, Rivularia, Monormia, Hormosiphon, Anabaena, Cylindrospermum, Diplocolon, Nematonostoc sp.]
Diagnosis:
Bornet & Flahault (1888): Thallus mucosus, gelatinosus vel coriaceus, initio globosus vel oblongus, demum in speciebus diversis formas varias induens (globosus, foliosus, filiformis, bullosus, maculiformis), solidus vel cavus, liber vel affixus, strato corticali densiori (peridermide dicto) et saturatius colorato cinctus. Fila flexuoso-curvata et implicata, in thallum coalita; vaginae nunc ubique distinctae, nunc confluentes indiscernendae. Trichomata saepius torulosa. Articuli sphaerico-depressi, dolii formes vel cylindrici. Heterocystae intercalares et (in junioribus) terminales. Sporae sphaericae vel oblongae, ad medium inter heterocystas seriatae, evolutione centrifuga (Conf. Borzi, Morfologia, etc., in Nuovo Giornale bot. ital., 1878, vol. X, p. 241).
Type species: Nostoc commune Vaucher ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. - More than 200 described species, from which about 40 are recognizable according to present knowledge. Taxonomic revision not yet finished. Probably two subgenera.
Descriptions:
Komárek (1992):
Thallous; thallus micro- or macroscopic, gelatinous, amorph or spherical, later irregularly spherical, lobate, smooth or warty on the surface, filamentous or forming flat gelatinous or "paper-like" (when dry) colonies, usually with distinct periderm on the colonial surface. Filaments within colony irregularly coiled and loosely or densely agglomerated, sometimes more gathered in peripheral layer; sheaths around trichomes present, but visible usually only in the periphery of colony or in young colonies, wide, fine mucilaginous, confluent with colonial mucilage, sometimes yellowish-brown. Trichomes isopolar, of the same width along the whole length, apical cells morphologically not different from other cells; cells cylindrical, barrel-shaped up to almost spherical (forming moniliform trichomes; variability of cell-size and -shape sometimes distinct in one and the same species). Heterocytes solitary, develop in trichomes terminally or interca- lary. (their frequency or absence is dependent on nitrogen metabolism); trichomes in principle metameric. Akinetes arise apoheterocytic, oval, little larger than cells; almost all cells between heterocytes change suc- cesively in akinetes towards heterocytes. Nostoc has special life (vegetation) cycle, during which forms several special and characteristic stages (Mollenhauer 1986, Lazaroff 1972, Komárek & Anagnostidis 1989). From several described subgenera are probably acceptable typical Nostoc and Amorphonostoc, which differ in morphology of colonies (Amorphonostoc has not periderm) and by a type of life cycle, which is more simple in Amorphonostoc.
Genotype differences, molecular data:
Reproduction strategies, life cycles, cell division:
Komárek (1992): Cells divide crosswise. Reproduction by motile hormogonia, which differentiate from trichomes by disintegration at heterocytes, by disintegration of thallus and by akinetes, respectively.
Ultrastructure:
Taxonomic position, higher hierarchy: Cyanophyceae,
Nostocales, Nostocaceae, Nostocoideae
Notes to taxonomy, misinterpretations:
Ecology, ecophysiology, ecological significance:
Komárek (1992): Different species grow in freshwater biotopes, epipelic, epilithic and epiphytic in not polluted lakes, ponds and pools, many species grow in different soils (especially from the subgenus Amorphonostoc) or on their surface. N. flagelliforme from Chinese semi deserts is edible. Several species are important components of subpolar soil or water-biotopes and nitrogen-fixers. Few species grow endophytically in fungi, (Geosiphon), mosses, liverworts, ferns and vascular plants (roots of Cycas, Gunnera). In world collections are numerous isolated strains, which are, however, insufficiently identified.
Physiology and biochemistry:
Distribution, endemism, problematic citations:
Reference strain:
Infrageneric scheme, species concept:

List of species:
Free living species:
Nostoc alatosporum Sant' Anna et al. 2007
Nostoc amplissimum Setchell 1899
Nostoc antarcticum W. et G.S. West 1911
Nostoc bicalyptratum Skuja 1937
Nostoc bornetii Gain 1911
Nostoc caeruleum Lyngbye ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 213
Nostoc calcicola Brébisson ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 202
Nostoc carneum Agardh ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 196
Nostoc citrisporum Prasad et Mehrotra 1976
Nostoc comminutum Kützing in Prescott 1962
Nostoc commune Vaucher ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 203
Nostoc conglomeratum Hirose 1962
Nostoc copiosum Kogan et Jaskulieva 1972
Nostoc cordubensis Prosperi 1985
Nostoc crassisporum Geitler 1933
Nostoc desertorum Řeháková et Johansen 2007. Phycologia 46(5): 488
Nostoc disciforme Fritsch 1912
Nostoc edaphicum Kondrateva 1962
Nostoc elgonense Naumann 1925
Nostoc ellipsosporum Rabenhorst ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 198
Nostoc flagelliforme Berkeley et Curtis ex Bornet et Flahault 1888
Nostoc gelatinosum Schousboe ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 199
Nostoc hatei Dixit 1936
Nostoc humifusum Carmichael ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 201
Nostoc imperfectum Schwabe et El Ayouti 1966
Nostoc indistinguendum Řeháková et Johansen 2007. Phycologia 46(5): 485
Nostoc interbryum Sant' Anna et al. 2007
Nostoc kihlmanii Lemmermann 1900
Nostoc letestui Frémy 1930
Nostoc linckia Bornet ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 192
Nostoc longstaffii Fritsch 1912
Nostoc membranaceum Gardner 1927
Nostoc microscopicum Carmichael ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 210
Nostoc minutissimum Küztnig ex Bornet et Flahault 1888
Nostoc minutum Desmazières ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 209
Nostoc muscorum Agardh ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 200
Nostoc oryzae (Fritsch) Komárek et Anagnostidis 1989
Nostoc paludosum Kützing ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 191
Nostoc parmelioides Kützing ex Bornet et Flahault 1888
Nostoc passerinianum Bornet et Thuret ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 199
Nostoc punctiforme (Kützing ex Hariot) Hariot 1891
Nostoc pruniforme Agardh ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 215
Nostoc riabuschinskii Elenkin 1914
Nostoc segawai Okada 1932
Nostoc sphaericum Vaucher ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 208
Nostoc sphaeroides Kützing ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser.VII, 7: 212
Nostoc tibeticum Jao et al. 1974
Nostoc torulosum Hirose 1962
Nostoc vaillantii Behre 1953
Nostoc verrucosum Vaucher ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 216
Nostoc viride Sant' Anna et al. 2007
Nostoc wartisporum Prasad et al. 1977
Nostoc zetterstedtii Areschoug ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 220

Symbiotic species:
Nostoc cycadeae
A. Watanabe et Kiyohara 1963
Nostoc lichenoides Vaucher ex Řeháková et Johansen 2007. Phycologia 46(5): 484
Nostoc symbioticum Wetstein 1915 

Unclear taxa:
Nostoc album Gardner 1927
Nostoc aureum Kützing ex Bornet et Flahautl 1888
Nostoc brittonii Gardner 1927
Nostoc edule Berkeley et Montagne ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 215
Nostoc ellipsoideum Gardner 1927
Nostoc epilithicum Ercegović 1925
Nostoc foliaceum Mougeot in Bristol 1920
Nostoc fonticola Brabez 1941
Nostoc fuscescens Fritsch 1912
Nostoc glomeratum Kützing ex Bornet et Flahault 1888
Nostoc halophilum Hangirg 1885
Nostoc insulare Borzì 1907
Nostoc maculiforme Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 189
Nostoc molle Agardh ex Bornet et Flahault 1888
Nostoc parmelioides sensu Frémy 1930
Nostoc ramosum Ercegović 1925
Nostoc repandum W. et G.S. West 1897
Nostoc thermophilum Vouk 1916
Nostoc simulans Gardner 1927
Nostoc sphaerosporum Gardner 1927
Nostoc wichmannii Weber van Bosse 1913
Nostoc willei Gardner 1927

Keys:
List of stains:
Drawings:
Komárek 1992
Application technology:
Literature:
  2.1 taxonomy: Bornet & Flahault 1886, Geitler 1932, Geitler 1942, Kondrateva 1968, Mollenhauer 1970, Mollenhauer 1985a, Mollenhauer 1985b, Mollenhauer 1986a, Mollenhauer 1986b), Lazaroff 1972, Lazaroff 1973, Komárek et Anagnostidis 1989, Komárek 1992, Řeháková et al. 2007
  2.2 cytomorphology:
  2.3 16S rRNA sequencing:
  2.4 biology and life cycles:
  2.5 ecology: