Generic name: GLOEOCAPSA Kützing, 1843, nom. cons. Phycol. gen., p. 173.
BICHATIA Turpin, 1828, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 16: 162
Type species: Gloeocapsa atrata Kutzing 1845. - More than 140 described species but only about 40 valid and recognizable.
Komárek & Anagnostidis (1998): Colonies micro-, later macroscopic (rarely only microscopic), usually multicellular, mucilaginous, amorphous, epilithic or epiphytic (rarely free floating or metaphytic), composed of small groups of irregularly arranged cells, enveloped by wide, usually stratified individual gelatinous envelopes, joined together into a formless mass. Cells and their groups always surrounded by wide gelatinous sheaths, concentrically lamellate (lamellation distinct or scarcely visible), in several species intensely or partly coloured by sheath pigments (gloeocapsin, scytonemin), yellow, yellow-brown, orange, red, blue or violet; gelatinous envelopes do not copy exactly the cell shape. Gelatinous envelopes usually delimited, only in some stages of the life cycle or under special conditions diffluent (also sometimes in cultures). Cells always spherical or rarely indistinctly elongated and oval, after division hemispherical, usually with pale blue-green, homogeneous content, sometimes with solitary granules; gas vesicles only in one planktic species.
Komárek (1992): Unicellular - colonial; colonies microscopic, small in a form of irregular agglomerations, or large, up to macroscopic, gelatinous, amorph, sometimes covering large areas of wet stony substrates; colonies composed from groups of cells, which are closed in mucilaginous, usually wide and concentrically lamellated envelopes, in several species intensely reddish, bluish, orange or yellowish coloured; cells situated in colonies irregularly, more or less distant one from another, in old colonies in great numbers. Mucilaginous envelopes fine, but layered and limited; solitary cells produce soon after division their own, wide envelopes, which do not just copy the cell shape. Cells spherical, only shortly after division hemispherical, pale blue-green or olive-green, usually with slightly granular content. During vegetation cycles develop mor- phologically different stages (status), conditioned by ecological influences.
Geitler (1932): Zellen kugelig, zu 2 - 8, seltener zu mehreren in Kolonien, mit ineinander geschachtelten, blasig aufgetriebenen Membranhüllen. Kolonien einzeln oder zu vielen beisammen und dann oft weitausgedehnte Lager bildend. Membranhüllen geschichtet oder ungeschichtet.
Zellteilungen meist regelmäßig abwechselnd nach drei aufeinander senkrecht stehenden Raumrichtungen; Zellen in größeren Kolonien oft sekundär verschoben und infolge ungleichzeitiger Teilungen unregelmäßig gelagert. Gelegentlich Nannocytenbildung, häufig Aphanocapsa-artige Stadien. Bei einigen Arten große Zellen mit fester Membran (Dauerzellen); Dauerzellen oft infolge von Umwandlung eben geteilter Zellen zweiteilig.
Genotype differences, molecular data:
Reproduction strategies, life cycles, cell division:
Komárek & Anagnostidis (1998): Cell division by binary fission within gelatinous envelopes, in three perpendicular planes in successive generations; daughter cells shift in mucilage irregularly and produce their own gelatinous envelopes soon after division (= formation of lamellate sheaths). Cells grow to the original size and shape before next division (difference from Chroococcaceae). Reproduction by liberation of groups of cells or solitary cells (with or without envelopes) from the colonial mass and by disintegration of colonies into small gelatinous clusters containing several cells. In some species is known nanocyte production. Aphanocapsa-stages (with diffluent
sheaths, resulting in arrangement of cells in more or less homogeneous slime) and resting stages (cells enveloped by thick, firm sheaths, incorrectly designated as "akinetes" = "Dauerzellen") develop under unfavourable conditions.
Komárek (1992): Cell division in three perpendicular planes in successive generations; the daughter cells soon separate one from another after division, they develop their mucilaginous envelopes and grow into the original spherical - shape and size before the next division. Reproduction by disintegration of colonies into small cell clusters or into solitary cells with narrow gelatinous envelopes. It is known the nanocytic cell division. The described akinetes are probably only resting stages with dense mucilaginous envelopes, caused by environmental, unfavourable conditions (status, ecomorphoses), not real akinetes as known in filamentous cyanophytes.
Taxonomic position, higher hierarchy:
Cyanophyceae, Chroococcales, Microcystaceae
Notes to taxonomy, misinterpretations:Note: Various Gloeocapsa species grow in morphologically very diverse stages, independence on seasonal and local environmental changes. The various status (st. "familiaris", "simplex", "lamellosus", "coloratus", "perdurans", etc.) were described in numerous species. The knowledge of seasonal variability of the whole population is therefore necessary to the correct identification.
Ecology, ecophysiology, ecological significance:
Komárek (1992): Majority of species is known from wet or dry, periodically moisted stony and rocky walls and from rocks with streaming water, distributed allover the world. The taxonomy of populations from different areas is not quite clear, but most species are considered as world-wide distributed. They occur mainly in mountains, but also in all other rocky areas, including the arid regions. Few species are periphytic and metaphytic in waters with water pmnts, very rarely occur in plankton and secondary in cryoseston in high mountains.
Physiology and biochemistry:
Distribution, endemism, problematic citations:
Reference strain:
Infrageneric scheme, species concept:
List of species:
Gloeocapsa acervata Gardner 1927
Gloeocapsa aeruginosa Kützing 1843
Gloeocapsa africana Cholnoky 1952
Gloeocapsa alpina (Nägeli) Brand 1900
Gloeocapsa arenaria (Hassall) Rabenhosrt 1865
Gloeocapsa atrata Kützing 1945
Gloeocapsa bahamensis Collins 1920
Gloeocapsa biformis Ercegović 1925
Gloeocapsa bituminosa (Bory) Kützing 1849
Gloeocapsa calcarea Tilden 1898
Gloeocapsa calcicola Gardner 1927
Gloeocapsa caldariorum Rabenhorst 1865
Gloeocapsa cartilaginea Gardner 1927
Gloeocapsa compacta Kützing 1845
Gloeocapsa coracina Kützing 1843
Gloeocapsa decorticans (A. Braun) Richter in Wille 1925
Gloeocapsa deusta (Meneghini) Kützing 1849
Gloeocapsa fusco-lutea (Nägeli) Kützing 1849
Gloeocapsa gelatinosa (Meneghini) Kützing 1943
Gloeocapsa granosa (Berkeley) Kützing 1845
Gloeocapsa haematodes Kützing 1849
Gloeocapsa incrustata Chu 1944
Gloeocapsa kuetzingiana Nägeli 1849
Gloeocapsa lignicola  Rabenhorst 1865
Gloeocapsa minutula Gardner 1927
Gloeocapsa multisphaerica Gardner 1927
Gloeocapsa nigrescens Nägeli in Rabenhorst 1857
Gloeocapsa novacekii Komárek et Anagnostidis 1995
Gloeocapsa ovalis Garner 1927
Gloeocapsa punctata Nägeli 1849
Gloeocapsa ralfsii (Harvey) Kützing 1846
Gloeocapsa reicheltii Richter 1895
Gloeocapsa rupestris Kützing 1845
Gloeocapsa rupicola Kützing 1849
Gloeocapsa salina Hansgirg 1893
Gloeocapsa sanguinea (Agardh) Kützing 1843
Gloeocapsa shuttlewothiana Kützing 1845
Gloeocapsa siderochlamys (Skuja) Starmach 1966
Gloeocapsa sparsa Wood 1872
Gloeocapsa sphaerica Gardner 1927
Gloeocapsa tepidariorum A. Braun in Rabenhost 1852 [syn. G. thermalis Lemmermann 1905]
Gloeocapsa thermophilla (Wood) Claus 1959
Gloeocapsa tornensis Skuja 1964
Gloeocapsa violascea (Corda) Rabenhorst 1865
Gloeocapsa zostericola Farlow 1882

Unclear taxa:
Gloeocapsa ambigia Nägeli 1849
Gloeocapsa ampla Vorce 1881
Gloeocapsa attingens Schiller 1954
Gloeocapsa aurata Stizenberger in Rabenhorst 1854
Gloeocpasa botryoides Kützing 1843
Gloeocapsa conglomerata Kützing 1846
Gloeocapsa conspicua Reinsch 1867
Gloeocapsa cryptococcoides Kützing 1846
Gloeocapsa didyma (Kützing) Kützing 1846
Gloeocapsa dirumpens Beck-Mannagetta 1929
Gloeocapsa dubia  Wartmann in Rabenhorst 1861
Gloeocapsa endocodia Vouk 1936
Gloeocapsa geminata Kützing 1849
Gloeocapsa gigas W. et G.S. West 1895
Gloeocapsa holstii Hieronymus 1895
Gloeocapsa ianthina Nägeli in Kützing 1849
Gloeocapsa juliana (Meneghini) Kützing in Rabenhorst 1869
Gloeocapsa livida (Carmichael) Kützing 1846
Gloeocapsa mellea (Meneghini) Kützing 1846
Gloeocapsa monococca Kützing 1843
Gloeocapsa montana sensu El-Aiouti et Ayyat 1972
Gloeocapsa myxophila Beck-Mannagetta 1931
Gloeocapsa nigra (Meneghini) Grunow in Rabenhost 1865
Gloeocapsa ocellata Rabenhorst 1863
Gloeocapsa opaca Nägeli 1849
Gloeocapsa palea Kützing 1843
Gloeocapsa paroliniana Wille 1925
Gloeocapsa peniocystis Kützing 1846
Gloeocapsa purpurea Kützing 1846
Gloeocapsa quaternata (Brébisson) Kützing 1846
Gloeocapsa rosea Kützing 1846
Gloeocapsa rubicunda Kützing 1843
Gloeocapsa sanguinolenta Kützing 1843
Gloeocapsa saxicola Wartmann in Rabenhorst 1859
Gloeocapsa scopulorum Nägeli 1849
Gloeocapsa squamulosa Brébisson in  Kützing 1846
Gloeocapsa stegophila (Itzigsohn) Rabenhorst 1843
Gloeocapsa stillicidiorum Kützing 1843
Gloeocapsa thermalis Kützing 1843
Gloeocapsa versicolorNägeli in Kützing 1849

List of stains:
Komárek 1992
Application technology:
  2.1 taxonomy: Brand 1900, Nováček 1929, Geitler 1932, Nováček 1934, Geitler 1942, Jaag 1945, Skuja 1964, Golubić 1967, Abdelahad & Bazzichelli 1991, Komárek 1992, Komárek 1993, Komárek & Anagnostidis 1998
  2.2 cytomorphology:
  2.3 16S rRNA sequencing:
  2.4 biology and life cycles:
  2.5 ecology: