Generic name: ANABAENA Bory ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 7, 7: 224.
ANABAINA Bory de Saint Vincent, 1822. Dict. Class, d´Hist. Nat.1: 308.
BELMONTIA Archibald, 1967. Nova Hedwigia 12(3-4): 532.
BELONIA Carmichael in Hookers, 1833. Brit. Fl. 2: 379.
CYANOSPIRA Florenzano et al., 1985. Arch. Microbiol. 140: 305.
DOLICHOSPERMUM Thwaites in Ralfs, 1843. Ann. Nat. Hist. 11: 161.
SPHAEROZYGA C. A. Agardh, 1827. Flora 10, 2: 634.
TRICHORMUS Allmann, 1843. Ann. Nat. Hist. 9: 161.
ANABAENA Bory, Dictionnaire classique d'histoire naturette, vol.I, p. 307,1822 ex Bornet et Flahault, 1886: Nostoc, Sphaerozyga, Belonia, Schizonema, Merizomyria, Byssus, Cylindrospermum, Trichormus, Dolichospermum, Nodularia, Spermosira sp.]
Bornet et Flahault (1888)
: Trichomata aequalia vel ad apices sensim attenuata, evaginata vel vaginis saepius evanescentibus cincta, libera vel in stratum mucosum congesta. Cellulae apicales difformes. Heterocystae intercalares plures. Sporae situs varii, modo heterocystis utrinque contiguae, modo inter cellulas vegetativas ortae, solitariae vel catenatae. (Conf. Wittrock in Wittrock et Nordstedt, Algae exsicc., n° 496.)
Type species: Anabaena oscillarioides Bory ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. - divided in two subgenera: Anabaena, and Dolichospermum Thwaites ex Wittrock et Nordstedt,1889.
Komárek (1992)
: Filamentous; filaments solitary or in free clusters (subg. Dolichospermum) or in macroscopic mats on the substrate (subg. Anabaena), usually with coiled and tangled, sometimes up to screw-like coiled, rarely with more or less parallel oriented trichomes, along the length of the same width or slightly narrowed to the ends, with more or less deep constrictions at cross walls, always without firm sheaths, but sometimes with mucilaginous, hyaline, colourless, often diffluent envelopes; trichomes uniserial, often moniliform, isopolar, always metameric (heterocytes develop solitary and intercalary in more or less certain distances one from another; in one developed trichome always 3-9, rarely more, heterocytes). Cells cylindrical, barrel-shaped or spherical, shorter up to longer than wide, pale or bright blue-green or olive-green, containing aerotopes (subg. Dolichospermum) or without aerotopes, but sometimes with granular content (subg. Anabaena); terminal cells sometimes slightly elongated, conical, conical rounded or spherical, not vacuolized. Heterocytes spherical, widely oval or cylindrical, sometimes elongated, usually slightly greater than vegetative cells. Akinetes spherical,oval or cylindrical, solitary or several in a row, intercalar, developing always paraheterocytic, close to heterocytes from their both sides, or slightly distant from
Genotype differences, molecular data:
Reproduction strategies, life cycles, cell division:
Komárek (1992): Cells divide cross-wise and grow to the original size before the next division; without meristematic zones. Reproduction by trichome fragmentation (usually at heterocytes) and by akinetes.
Taxonomic position, higher hierarchy:
Cyanophyceae, Nostocales, Nostocaceae, Anabaenoideae
Notes to taxonomy, misinterpretations:
Ecology, ecophysiology, ecological

Komárek (1992): Planktic species, sometimes forming water blooms (mainly from the subg. Dolichospermum) or in mats covering different substrates,
water plants, submersed woods, stones etc. Several species grow benthic or in soils, several are known from salinic (brackish) biotopes. Many species have limited geographic areas of distribution.
Physiology and biochemistry:
Distribution, endemism, problematic citations:
Reference strain:
Infrageneric scheme, species concept:

List of species:
Subgenus Anabaena (typical)
Anabaena aequalis Borge 1906
Anabaena aeruginosa Garner 1927
Anabaena alatospora Gonzalvez et Kamat 1959
Anabaena aspera Frémy 1930
Anabaena augstumalis Schmidle 1899
Anabaena australica Playfair 1918
Anabaena bathophora Frémy 1929
Anabaena beckii De Toni 1935
Anabaena bispora Gayral et Mazancourt 1960
Anabaena bornetiana Collins 1896
Anabaena californica Borge 1909
Anabaena catenula (Kützing) Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 232
Anabaena cylindrica Lemmermann 1896
Anabaena cylindrospora Tschernov 1950
Anabaena duploye Welsh 1965
Anabaena echinospora
Skuja 1926
Anabaena ellipsoidea (Compère) Komárek 2012. Fottea 12(1): 141
Anabaena felisii (Meneghini) Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 232
Anabaena fuscovaginata Mareš 2010. Fottea 10(2): 236
Anabaena gracilis Messimommer 1956
Anabaena groenlandica Bachmann 1921
Anabaena hieronymii Lemmermann 1897
Anabaena hollerbachii Obuchova 1959
Anabaena inaequalis (Kützing) Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 231
Anabaena iyengari Bharadwaya 1935
Anabaena jeejiae Komárek 2005
Anabaena jonsonii Boye-petersen 1923
Anabaena kwangtungensis Ley 1947
Anabaena lapponica Borge 1913
Anabaena laxa A. Braun ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 233
Anabaena leonardii Compère 1967
Anabaena marklei Copeland 1936
Anabaena mediocris Gardner 1927
Anabaena minutissima Lemmermann 1898
Anabaena monilifera Frémy 1945
Anabaena oblonga Wildeman 1897
Anabaena orientalis Dixit 1936
Anabaena orthogona W. West 1891
Anabaena oscillarioides Bory ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 233
Anabaena papillosa Hirano 1969
Anabaena pirinica Petkoff 1925
Anabaena poulseniana Boye-Petersen 1923
Anabaena promecespora Frémy 1930
Anabaena repens Behre 1956
Anabaena saaremaaensis Skuja 1929
Anabaena sedovii Kosinskaja 1933
Anabaena shankargarhii Varma 1964
Anabaena solicola Kondrateva 1959
Anabaena sphaerica Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 228
Anabaena subcylindrica Borge 1921
Anabaena tatarica Kosinskaja 1951
Anabaena tenuis Messikommer 1956
Anabaena torulosa (Carmichael) Lagerheim ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. VII, 7: 236
Anabaena turkestanica (Kiselev) Komárek 2005
Anabaena vaucheriae Jao 1949
Anabaena verrucosa Boye-Petersen 1923
Anabaena willei Gardner 1927

Unclear taxa:
Anabaena aerophila Brabez 1941
Anabaena azotica Ley 1959
Anabaena baltica sensu Péterfi et al. 1960
Anabaena bullosa Kützing sensu Kuntze 1898
Anabaena constricta (Szaffer) Geitler 1925
Anabaena cylindrospora Černov 1950
Anabaena cylindrospora Welsh 1965
Anabaena delicatissima Gardner 1927
Anabaena epiphytica Gardner 1927
Anabaena ghosei Welsh 1964
Anabaena huberi De Toni 1934
Anabaena hyalina Schmidle in Canabaeus 1929
Anabaena incognita Welsh 1964
Anabaena indica Tiwari et Pandey 1976
Anabaena minuta Welsh 1964
Anabaena schauderi Welsh 1961
Anabaena solitaria var. tenuis Voronichin 1923 sensu auct.
Anabaena sphagnicola Tarnavschi et Mitroiu 1956
Anabaena tuzsonii Halász 1936
Anabaena verrucosa Boye-Petersen sensu Prescott 1962

Anabaena-like cluster A
- planktic solitary, ± straight trichomes, narrowed ends, not elongated and hyaline terminal cells
Anabaena austroafricana Cronberg et Komárek 2004
Anabaena bergii Ostenfeld 1908
Anabaena bergii var. minor Kiselev 1927
Anabaena carmichaeli Cronberg et Komárek 2004
Anabaena hatueyi
Komárek 1988
Anabaena karakumica Kogan 1967
Anabaena kisselevii Proškina-Lavrenko et Makarova 1968
Anabaena minderi Huber-Pestalozzi 1938
Anabaena nodularioides Geitler et Ruttner 1935
Anabaena recta Geitler et Ruttner 1935
Anabaena robusta Kogan et Jazkulieva 1970
Anabaena salina Liebetanz 1925
Anabaena wisconsinensis  Prescott 1944

Anabaena-like cluster B - very thin cylindrical solitary planktic filaments, not attenuated towards ends, cells with aerotopes, cells usualy longer than wide
Anabaena attenuata Kiselev 1940
Anabaena abnormis Proškina-Lavrenko et Makarova 1968
Anabaena elliptica Lemmermann 1898
Anabaena levanderii Lemmermann 1906
Anabaena miniata Skuja 1956
Anabaena tenericaulis Nygaard 1949

List of stains:
Application technology:
Komárek (1992)
  2.1 taxonomy: Bornet et Flahault 1888, Geitler 1932, Komárek 1992, Komárek et Anagnostidis 1989, Mareš 2010
  2.2 cytomorphology:
  2.3 16S rRNA sequencing:
  2.4 biology and life cycles:
  2.5 ecology: